+ Supervised student/postdoc contribution
* Corresponding author
§ Invited contribution

Google Scholar Link


61. Bao, X.W.+, X.D. Song, J.T. Li, High-resolution lithospheric structure beneath Mainland China from ambient noise and earthquake surface-wave tomography, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 417, 132-141, DOI: 10.1016/j.epsl.2015.02.024, 2015.

60. Bao, X,W.+ X Sun, M Xu, DW Eaton, X Song, L Wang, Z Ding, N Mi, H Li, D Yu, Z Huang, P Wang. Two crustal low-velocity channels beneath SE Tibet revealed by joint inversion of Rayleigh wave dispersion and receiver functions, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 415, 16-24, 2015.

59. Wang, T.+, X.D. Song*, Xia H. Han, Equatorial anisotropy of Earth’s inner inner core from autocorrelation of earthquake coda, Nature Geosci., 8 (3), 224-227, doi:10.1038/ngeo2354, 2015.

58. 宋晓东, 李江涛, 鲍学伟, 李思田, 王良书, 任建业, 中国西部大型盆地的深部结构及对盆地形成和演化的意义,地学前缘, 22(1),127-137 2015.


57. HH Huang+, YM Wu, X Song, CH Chang, H Kuo‐Chen, SJ Lee, Investigating the lithospheric velocity structures beneath the Taiwan region by nonlinear joint inversion of local and teleseismic P wave data: Slab continuity and deflection, Geophys. Res. Lett. 41 (18), 6350-6357, 2014.

56. HH Huang+, YM Wu, X Song, CH Chang, SJ Lee, TM Chang, HH Hsieh, Joint Vp and Vs tomography of Taiwan: Implications for subduction-collision orogeny, Earth and Planet. Sci. Lett. 392, 177-191, 2014.

55. A Perttu, D Christensen, G Abers, X Song, Insights into mantle structure and flow beneath Alaska based on a decade of observations of shear wave splitting, J. Geophys. Res., 119 (11), 8366-8377, 2014.

54. Sun, X.+, X. Bao, M. Xu,D.W. Eaton, X.D. Song, L. Wang, Z. Ding, N. Mi, D. Yu, and H. Li (2014), Crustal structure beneath SE Tibet from joint analysis of receiver functions and Rayleigh wave dispersion, Geophys. Res. Lett., 41, 1479–1484, doi:10.1002/2014GL059269, 2014.

53. Wang, T.,+ J. Revenaugh, and X.D. Song*, Two-dimensional/three-dimensial waveform modeling of subdcuting slab and transition zone beneath Northeast Asia, J. Geophys.,  Res., Solid Earth, 119, 4766–4786, doi:10.1002/2014JB011058, 2014.

52. Xu, Z.J.+, X.D. Song*, S.H. Zheng, Shear velocity structure of crust and upper mantle in China from surface wave tomography using ambient noise and earthquake data, Earthq. Sci., 26(5):267-281,  doi:10.1007/s11589-013-0010-7, 2013.

51. Huang, H.H.+, Z.J. Xu, Y.M. Wu, X.D. Song*, B.S. Huang, N.L. Minh, First Local Seismic Tomography for Red River Shear Zone, Northern Vietnam: Stepwise Inversion Employing Crustal P and Pn Waves, Tectonophys, 584, 230-239, 2013.

50. Xu, Z.J.+, X.D. Song*, L.P. Zhu, Joint inversion of receiver function and surface wave dispersion using Neighborhood Algorithm: An application to Hi-Climb linear array in Tibetan Plateau, Tectonophys., 584, 209-220, 2013.

49. Bao, X.W.+, X.D. Song*, M.J. Xu, et al., Crust and upper mantle structure of the North China Craton and the NE Tibetan Plateau and its tectonic implications, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 369-370, 129-137, 2013.

48. Li, H.Y., S.T. Li, X.D. Song, M. Gong, X. Li, J. Jia,  Crustal and uppermost mantle velocity structure beneath northwestern China from seismic ambient noise tomography, Geophys. J. Int. 188, 131-143  DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2011.05205.x, 2012.

§ 47. Song, X.D.* Differential Rotation of the Earth’s Inner Core, Encyclopedia of Solid Earth Geophysics (Part of the series Encyclopedia of Earth Sciences), H. Gupta (Ed.), 118-121, Springer, 2011.

46. Song, X.D.*, Preface to the special issue on ambient noise seismology, Earthq. Sci., 23, 395-396, Doi: 10.1007/s11589-010-0744-4, 2010.

45. Sun, X.L.+, X.D. Song*, S.H. Zheng, Y.J. Yang, and M.H. Ritzwoller, Three dimensional shear wave velocity structure of the crust and upper mantle beneath China from ambientnoise surface wave tomography,  Earthq. Sci., 23, 449-463, Doi: 10.1007/s11589-010-0744-4, 2010.

44. Lindner, D.+, X.D. Song*, and P. Ma, New insights into the inner-core rotation and its variability, J. Geophys. Res., 115, doi:10.1029/2009JB006294, 2010.

43. Xu, Z.J.+, and X.D. Song, Joint inversion for crustal and Pn velocities and Moho depth for eastern margin of Tibetan Plateau, Tectonophysics, 491, 185-193, 2010.


42. Xu, Z.J.,+ and X.D. Song, Temporal changes of surface wave velocity associated with major Sumatra earthquakes from ambient noise correlation, Proc. Natl. Aca. Sci. USA, 106, 14207-14212, 2009.

41. Zheng, S.H., X.L. Sun, X.D. Song*, Y.J. Yang, M.H. Ritzwoller, Surface wave tomography of China from ambient seismic noise correlation, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 9, Q05020, doi:10.1029/2008GC001981, 2008.

40. Song, X.D.*, and W. Dai, Topography of Earth’s inner core boundary from high-quality waveform doublets, Geophys. J. Int., 175, 386-399, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2008.03909.x, 2008.

39. Dai, W.,+ and X.D. Song*, Detection of motion and heterogeneity in Earth’s liquid outer core, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L16311, doi:10.1029/2008GL034895, 2008.

38. Sun, X.L.+, and X.D. Song, The inner inner core of the Earth: Texturing of iron crystals from three-dimensional seismic anisotropy, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 56-65, doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2008.01.049, 2008.

37. Sun, X.L.,+ and X.D. Song, Tomographic inversion for three-dimensional anisotropy of Earth’s inner core, Phys. Earth. Planet. Inter., 167, 53-70, doi:10.1016/j.pepi.2008.02.011, 2008.

36. Song, X.D.*, G. Poupinet, Inner core rotation from event-pair analysis, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2007.06.034, 2007.

35. Sun, D.Y., D.V. Helmberger, X.D. Song, S.P. Grand, Predicting a global perovskite and postperovskite phase boundary, in Post-Perovskite: The Last Mantle Phase Transition (K. Hirose, J. Brodholt, T. Lay, D. Yuen, Eds.), Geophys. Monogr. Ser., Vol. 174, American Geophysical Union, 2007.

34. Sun, X.L.,+ X.D. Song, S.H. Zheng, and D.V. Helmberger, Evidence for a chemical-thermal structure at base of mantle from sharp lateral P-wave variations beneath Central America, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 104 (1), 26-30, doi:10.1073/pnas.0609143103, 2007.

33. Zheng, S.H., X.L. Sun, and X.D. Song, Fine structure in lowermost mantle beneath Central Pacific from PKP waves recorded at China Sesmic Network, Chinese J. Geophys., 50(1), 183-191, 2007.

§ 32. Song, X.D.*, Inner core anisotropy, in Encyclopedia of Geomagnetism and Paleomagnetism (D. Gubbins and E. Herroro-Bervera, Eds.), 418-420, Springer, 2007.

31. Liang, C.T.+, and X.D. Song, A low velocity belt beneath northern and eastern Tibetan Plateau from Pn tomography, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L22306, doi:10.1029/2006GL027926, 2006.

30. Sun, X.L.+, G. Poupinet (^), and X.D. Song (^), Examination of systematic mislocation of South Sandwich Islands Earthquakes using station pairs: Implications for inner core rotation, J. Geophys. Res., 111, B11305, doi:10.1029/2005JB004175, 2006. (^ alphabetic order)

29. Zhang, J.(^), X.D. Song (^*), Y.C. Li, P.G. Richards, X.L. Sun, F. Waldhauser, Inner core differential motion confirmed by earthquake doublet waveform doublets, Science, 309, 1357-1360, doi:10.1126/science.1113193, 2005. (^ equal contribution)


§ 28. Song, X.D., A review of Pn tomography of China, in Advances in Seismology and Physics of Earth’s interior in China (Y.T. Chen and C.Y. Wang, Eds.), Seismology Press, Beijing, 321-345, 2004.

27. Song, X.D.*, S.T. Li, Y.C. Li, S.H. Zheng, and X.N. Xie, Structure of lithospheric mantle and its implications for major basins in China (in Chinese), Earth Sci.-J. China Univ. Geosci., 29(5), 531-5 38, 2004.

26. Liang, C.T.+, X.D. Song, and J.L. Huang, Tomographic inversion of Pn travel-times in China, J. Geophys. Res., 109, B11304, doi:10.1029/2003JB0027 89, 2004.

25. Huang, J.L., X.D. Song, S.Y. Wang, Fine structure of Pn velocity beneath Sichuan-Yunnan region, Sci. China, Ser. D., 46 Suppl., 201-209, 2003.

24. Xu, X.X.+, and X.D. Song, Evidence for inner core super-rotation from time-dependent differential PKP travel times observed at Beijing Seismic Network, Geophys. J. Int., 152, 509-514, 2003.

§ 23. Song, X.D.*, Three-dimensional structure and differential rotation of the inner core, in Earth Core: Dynamics, Structure, Rotation (V.M. Dehant, K.C. Creager, S. Zatman, S. Karato, Eds.), Geodynamics Series, Vol. 31, American Geophysical Union, 2003.

22. Sun, X.L.+, and X.D. Song, PKP travel times at near antipodal distances: Implications for inner core anisotropy and lowermost mantle structure, Earth Plant. Sci. Lett., 199, 429-445, 2002.

§ 21. Song, X.D.*, and X.X. Xu, The Earth’s Core (in Chinese), New Frontiers of Sciences: Structure Evolution and Dynamics of the Earth (Eds: Y.X. Zhang, A. Yin), Higher Education Press, Beijing, China, 2002.  宋晓东和许晓霞,地核-20世纪的发现及展望,地球的结构、演化和动力学,主编:张有学和尹安,高等教育出版社,第四章,2002.

20. Song, X.D.*, and X.X. Xu, Inner core transition zone and anomalous PKP(DF) waveforms from polar paths, Geophys. Res. Lett., 29(4), 10.1029/2001GL013822, 2002.

§ 19. Song, X.D.*, The Earth’s core, International Handbook of Earthquake and Engineering Seismology, (W. H. K. Lee, H. Kanamori, P. C. Jennings, and C. Kisslinger, Eds.), Part A, Chapter 56, Academic Press, San Diego, 2002.

18. Song, X.D.*, Comment on “The existence of an inner core super-rotation questioned by teleseismic doublets” by Georges Poupinet, Annie Souriau, and Olivier Coutant, Phys. Earth Planet. Inter., 124, 269-273, 2001.

17. Song, X.D.*, Time dependence of PKP(BC)-PKP(DF) times: Could this be an artifact of systematic earthquake mislocations? Phys. Earth Planet. Inter., 122, 221-228, 2000.

16. Song, X.D.*, Joint inversion for inner core rotation, inner core anisotropy, and mantle heterogeneity, J. Geophys. Res., 105, 7931-7943, 2000.

15. Song, X.D.*, and A.Y. Li+, Support for differential inner core superrotation from earthquakes in Alaska recorded at South Pole station, J. Geophys. Res., 105, 623-630, 2000.


14. Zhang, G.M, L.R. Zhu, X.D. Song*, Z.X. Li, M.L. Yang, N.Q. Su, and X.Z. Chen, Predictions of the 1997 strong earthquakes in Jiashi, Xinjiang, China, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am., 89, 1171-1183, 1999

13. Song, X.D.*, and D.V. Helmberger, Seismological evidence for an inner core transition zone, Science, 282, 924-927, 1998.

§ 12. Song, X.D.*, The Earth’s inner core and the dynamics of the Earth’s deep interior (in Chinese), Earth Sci. Frontiers, 5, Suppl., 1-10, 1998.

11. Zhou, Y.Q. and X.D. Song, A review of the mantle dynamic system and its evolution (in  Chinese), Earth Sci. Frontiers, 5, Suppl., 11-39, 1998.

10. Richards, P.G., X.D. Song, A.Y. Li, Detecting Possible Rotation of Earth’s Inner Core, Science, 282, 1227a, 1998.

§ 9. Song, X.D.*, Anisotropy of the Earth’s inner core, Rev. of Geophysics, 35, 297-313, 1997.

8. Song, X.D.*, and P.G. Richards Seismological evidence for differential rotation of the Earth’s inner core, Nature, 382, 221-224, 1996.

7. Song, X.D.*, Anisotropy in the central part of the inner core, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 16,689-16,097, 1996.

Publications related to Ph.D. research (1992-1997)

6. Song, X.D.*, and D.V. Helmberger, PKP differential travel times: Implications for three-dimensional lower mantle structure, Geophys. Res. Lett., 24, 1863-1866, 1997.

5. Song, X.D.*, and D.V. Helmberger, Depth-dependence of inner core anisotropy, J. Geophys. Res., 100, 9805-9816, 1995.

4. Song, X.D.*, and D.V. Helmberger, A P-wave velocity model of the Earth’s core, J. Geophys. Res., 100, 9817-9830, 1995.

3. Song, X.D.*, and D.V. Helmberger, Anisotropy of the Earth’s inner core, Geophys. Res. Lett., 20, 2591-2594, 1993.

2. Song, X.D.*, and D.V. Helmberger, Effect of velocity structure in D” on PKP phases, Geophys. Res. Lett., 20, 285-288, 1993.

1. Song, X.D.*, and D.V. Helmberger, Velocity structure near the inner core boundary from waveform modeling, J. Geophys. Res., 97, 6573-6586, 1992.